History has been designed to provide broad historical information on a variety of themes so that faculty in higher education who would sign up for the course could get maximum benefit from it. The variety of modules offered in this course have been categorized on the basis of India’s historical chronology.

What is history, is a question all of us are often tempted to ask, but none of us are either confident to answer it satisfactorily or are satisfied with the answers proffered by the experts in the field.

Purpose of this article is the role of some elements of yoga in physical education and sports. Yoga is one of the spiritual systems in India which underlines the importance of working with the body to establish healthy behaviors and thoughts. The physical postures, called asanas in Sanskrit, are among all its techniques that got. It will be recalled that athletics and gymnastics are part of the Physical Education program. Once there was a time when people said "it's not the winning itself but the nobly competing that really matters," when the place where competitions took place was sacred and the respect between competitors was essential. The term Physical Education has been understood in many different ways in our modern society. Others claim it's the "self schooling," which educates the self to gain certain talents and abilities, as is used in athletics, for example. Others think it is the "education to the body" which only works to improve one’s appearance. This is unfortunately the main reason why people join gyms, especially even before summer.


Literature is as old as human culture and civilization. Its beginnings go back to the
primeval human desire to make sense of and reproduce the meanings and sounds of
the external universe and those in the internal universe, for example, what our Rishi-s
did in the Rigveda. Every new genre of literature is borne out of an attempt to organize
or reform human societies such as the fables of the Buddha in the Jatakas, or the odes
of Confucius in the Shijing. Three acts of literature, firstly narration as in Homer’s Iliad,
secondly enactment as in Bharata’s Natyashashtra, and thirdly song and dance as in
the Chinese opera Zaju or the Baiga dance-song of the Baiga tribes of Madhya Pradesh
have been the dominant modes of literary expression across the world cultures.


Library science (often termed library studies, bibliothecography, library economy, and informatics) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation and dissermination of information resources; and the political economy of information.

The refresher course will also provide an excellent opportunity to participants to know about the science of climate change, climate change modellings/ projections, impacts of climate change on water resources, energy, natural ecosystems, forests, agriculture, international systems, climate change policies, vulnerability and adaptation strategies with special reference to mountains. Objective of this course is to understand the Science of climate change, climate change modelling/ projections, impacts of climate change on water, glaciers, agriculture, natural ecosystems and forests, international systems of UNFCCC, IPCC and national scenario and climate change policies, vulnerability and adaptation strategies with reference to mountains. Since climate change is of paramount importance in the study of various branches of science and technology, the objective of this course is to create interest in students, research scholars, young faculty of  colleges and institutions. These diverse aspects of hydrology will be explored in this refresher course, expose participants to many important aspects of climate change.

Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and associated constitutions and laws.

Zoology, or animal biology, is the field of biology that involves the study of animals. The word zoology comes from the Greek words zōion, meaning “animal”, and logos, meaning “the study of”. It encompasses all aspects of scientific knowledge about animals, like embryonic development, evolution, behavior, ecological distribution, and classification. Zoology is broken into many branches because there are so many different ways to study animals; it is also broken into branches based on which animals are being studied.

This is a Refresher Course for Chemistry Teachers teaching in Higher Education Institutions at Under-Graduate and post-Graduate level. As per MHRD & UGC, this will be treated equivalent to face-to-face Refresher Course in Chemistry as required under Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) of UGC.

Economics is the practical and theoretical science of the production and distribution of wealth. It is based around the system of the production, buying and selling of goods and services.


English Literature refers to the study of texts from around the world, written in the English language. ... Generally, literature refers to different types of text including novels, non-fiction, poetry, and plays, among other forms.